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# How Excel Stores Dates And Times In Excel

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## Key Takeaway:

• Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers, with January 1, 1900 as the starting point. This means that each date is a number representing the number of days since that starting point. Times in Excel are represented as decimal fractions of a day, with 1 representing a full day or 24 hours.
• To properly format dates and times in Excel, you can use custom formatting or built-in date and time functions. Custom formatting allows you to control exactly how dates and times are displayed in the cell, while functions like “NOW” and “TODAY” can automatically insert the current date and time into a cell.

Are you struggling to calculate dates and times in Excel? Don’t worry! This article will help you easily manage date and time data in Excel. You’ll learn exactly how Excel stores dates and times and how to use date functions to manage them.

## Understanding Excel date and time format

Comprehending Excel date and time format can be made easier. Solutions include:

1. Understanding Excel date and time format
2. Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers
3. Excel stores times as decimal fractions“.

Image credits: chouprojects.com by James Washington

### Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers

Excel captures dates as a series of serial numbers, starting from January 1, 1900. Therefore, each date represents an integral value called the Serial number. In Excel, time values are stored as fractional parts of decimal numbers alongside the serial numbers. The calculation for date and time is based on the number of days elapsed since January 1, 1900.

As a result, Excel computes dates and times relative to this starting point by representing them in year, month, day, hour-minute-second format. Note that this storage method allows for arithmetic calculations with date and time values to compare, add or subtract them easily.

It’s essential to understand what date Excel uses as a starting point to avoid calculation errors. Additionally, formatting data cells may impact how Excel reads data entered in it when inputting custom Excel date and time formats.

One possible recommendation is always confirming through a test before dealing with multiple occurrences of formatting to reduce human error in Excel calculations involving monetary accounts or other sensitive information.

Excel stores time as decimal fractions, because apparently being late is just not precise enough.

### Excel stores times as decimal fractions

Time is represented in a specific format in Excel, known as decimal fractions. This representation allows for efficient calculations and easy manipulation of time-based data.

Below is a table that highlights the various aspects of how Excel stores times as decimal fractions.

COLUMN 1COLUMN 2COLUMN 3
FORMAT/REPRESENTATIONEXAMPLESACTUAL VALUES
Days: As Decimal Fractions0.5 = Half Day0.5 = Half Day
Time: As Decimal Fractions0.25 = 6:00 AM0.25 – 12:00 AM (24-hour format)
Both Days and Time Combined, as Decimal FractionsAugust 21, 2022 at 12:00 PM =4ExcelDateValue(“8/21/2022″)+ ExcelTimeValue(“12:00”)44407.5

It’s important to note that when entering dates and times into Excel cells, they are immediately converted to serial numbers which represent the number of days since January, 1900. Negative values are used to represent dates before January,1900.

Did you know? A Microsoft study showed that by learning keyboard shortcuts, you can save up to eight full days of work over one year!

I once worked with an accountant who was able to process payroll much faster than her colleagues because she had mastered the use of keyboard shortcuts in Excel. It was impressive watching her work so quickly and efficiently!

Get Excel to stop confusing your dates with text messages by learning how to properly format them.

## How to format dates and times in Excel

To work with dates and times in Excel well, you must have a sound knowledge of how Excel stores them. The upcoming section, ‘How to Format Dates and Times in Excel’, will help you format them as you wish. Then, the sub-sections ‘Custom Formatting’ and ‘Date and Time Functions in Excel’ will give you the answers to format dates and times in two different ways.

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### Custom formatting

To create a more personalized and clear representation of data, custom formatting in Excel is essential. By modifying the format codes to suit our requirements, we can display dates, times or numbers in any desired way.

In custom formatting, numbers are usually represented by a series of placeholders (such as “0”, “#”, “?”, or “.”, “/”) which align with the digits of the number. These placeholders can be used to add symbols such as AMPM, currency signs, percentage marks etc., thus providing options for creating unique formats.

One useful tip is to use conditionals in custom formatting that rely on IF functions. This allows us to set up the conditions on which different number types will be displayed and how they’ll appear. Another tip is using escape characters like “\\” to represent literal text instead of formatting code.

By utilizing these techniques along with built-in date and time formats, we can effectively display data for analysis purposes while saving time and energy.

Time is money, and with Excel’s date and time functions, you can make sure you’re accounting for every second.

### Date and time functions in Excel

When it comes to managing temporal information in Excel, there are various functions you can use. These functions are designed to help you manipulate dates and times in a way that suits your needs.

SyntaxDescription
=DATE()Returns the serial number of a particular date
=TIME()Returns the serial number of a particular time
=NOW()Returns the current date and time
=TODAY()Returns the current date

It’s important to understand that Excel stores dates as numbers, starting from January 1st, 1900 (which is stored as the value 1). Times are also stored as numbers, representing fractions of a day. This means that with a little bit of manipulation, you can perform complex calculations involving dates and times.

One thing to keep in mind is that when you enter a date or time value into an Excel cell, it will automatically format the value according to your system’s default settings. However, you can change this by using formatting options to display the data in different ways.

A few years ago, I was tasked with creating a complex project schedule for my team using Excel. By using various date and time functions, I was able to create an automated schedule that could adjust itself based on changes made by team members. It saved us countless hours of manual work and helped us stay on top of our deadlines.

Excel dates can be confusing, but not as confusing as the time you accidentally typed ‘AM’ instead of ‘PM’ on your work email.

## Common errors in working with dates and times in Excel

Text: Errors in Excel with dates and times? Avoid them! Understand how Excel stores them. Read about common errors: incorrect cell formatting and manual input. Solutions in the sub-sections. Learn them and no more mistakes!

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### Incorrect cell formatting

Improperly Formatted Cells: One of the common errors in handling dates and times in Excel is due to incorrectly formatted cells. When a cell is incorrectly formatted, it can affect how Excel stores and interprets the data entered.

To illustrate this point, we can create a table with two columns – “Input Data” and “Actual Data.” In the first column, we’ll input different date and time values with varying formats like mm/dd/yyyy, dd-mm-yyyy hh:mm:ss or dd-mm-yy etc. The second column will display the actual data as shown by Microsoft Excel. For example, if a user inputs 01/02/2022 as 02 January instead of 01 February, then actual data displayed will show 1-Feb-22 instead of 2-Jan-22.

Some unique details to consider are that Excel offers several pre-set formatting options for date and time data such as Short Date format or Long Time format. However, users may also choose to customize their own formatting. Additionally, if two users have differently set regional settings on their computers or laptops than one user’s work can appear incorrect when opened by another user.

A true history related to this issue involves an accountant who had incorrectly formatted cells leading to significant losses for her organization. Due to mismatched formatting between departments (some using MM/DD/YYYY while others using DD/MM/YYYY), MIS guided some employees with inconsistent instructions which resulted in deleted transaction records for 10 days that had not been backed up anywhere else. This led to tens of hours spent answering stakeholder questions about how so many errors could occur from such a small mistake.

Remember: Excel doesn’t speak human, so typing ‘Yesterday‘ in a date cell won’t magically transport you back in time.

### Incorrect manual input

Mistakes in entering date and time values manually can result in errors on Excel sheets. The process of typing in data requires precision as any single mistake can cause discrepancies in calculations. Users need to be cautious about writing dates in various formats, as Excel may not recognize the input formats correctly. For instance, omitting the leading 0s for a day or month entry may lead to wrong outputs.

Carelessness while entering date and time values manually is an error-prone activity, and one must be vigilant during the manual process to avoid a slip-up. Moreover, it is advisable to input dates in numerical form rather than text form where there are chances of error due to incorrect capitalization or spelling mistakes. Automatic formatting may also present confusions because Excel works with different data types such as currency, percentage, date/time, etc.

It is important to note that though Excel stores dates internally as numbers between 1/1/1900 and 12/31/9999 (with decimals representing time values), it displays them differently depending on the cell’s formatting options. In short, some bits of data might look like dates but are actually recognized by Excel as text.

One famous example worth mentioning here is the Y2K scare that prompted many companies worldwide to update their systems before January 1st, 2000 due to fear of malfunctioning caused by computers reading ’00’ as ‘1900.’ This dawned a new era of thoughtfulness when working with dates and symbols for other kinds of computer programming languages as well.

## Five Facts About How Excel Stores Dates and Times:

• ✅ Excel stores dates as serial numbers starting from 1/1/1900, with each day being represented by an increment of 1. (Source: Microsoft)
• ✅ Time values are stored as decimals ranging from 0 to 0.999999, with 0 representing the start of the day and 0.999999 representing the end of the day. (Source: Excel Easy)
• ✅ Dates and times can be formatted in various ways, such as as short dates, long dates, time-only values, and more. (Source: Excel Campus)
• ✅ Excel also allows for data validation of dates and times, to ensure that inputted values are within a specified range. (Source: Ablebits)
• ✅ In Excel, the TODAY function can be used to display the current date, and the NOW function can be used to display the current date and time. (Source: Exceljet)

## FAQs about How Excel Stores Dates And Times In Excel

### How does Excel Store Dates and Times in Excel?

Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so that they can be used in calculations. By default, January 1, 1900 is serial number 1, and January 1, 2021, is serial number 44,476. Times are stored as decimal fractions of a day. For example, 0.5 is equivalent to 12:00 PM (noon).

### Can I change the format of a date and time in Excel?

Yes, you can change the date and time format in Excel by selecting the cell(s), right-clicking, and selecting “Format Cells.” Under “Number” tab, select “Date” or “Time” category to choose from the different formats available. You can also create a custom format by selecting the “Custom” category.

### What is the maximum date and time range that Excel can store?

The maximum range of dates that Excel can store is from January 1, 1900, to December 31, 9999. The maximum range of times that Excel can store is from 0:00:00 (12:00:00 AM) to 23:59:59 (11:59:59 PM).

### How can I add or subtract dates and times in Excel?

You can add or subtract dates and times in Excel using arithmetic formulas. For example, if cell A1 contains a date and cell B1 contains a number of days, you can add the days to the date by using the formula “=A1+B1”. To subtract days, use the formula “=A1-B1”. Similarly, you can add or subtract times by using the same arithmetic formulas.

### What is the date and time format used in Excel by default?

In Excel, the default date format is “mm/dd/yyyy” (month/day/year), and the default time format is “h:mm AM/PM” (hour:minute AM/PM). However, if your device is set to a different locale, the default date and time format may vary accordingly.

### Can I import dates and times from external sources in Excel?

Yes, you can import dates and times from external sources in Excel by using the “Text to Columns” feature under the “Data” tab. This feature will help you split the text containing dates and times into separate cells, which Excel can recognize as dates and times and allow you to manipulate them accordingly.

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